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Buddhism in India

1 Anukul Chandra Banerjee, Buddhism in India and Abroad (Calcutta: The World Press, 1973), 3–179.

2 Government of India: Ministry of Home Affairs, “Distribution of Population by Religions,” Census 2001, http://censusindia.gov.in/Ad_Campaign/drop_in_articles/04-Distribution_by_Religion.pdf. This statistic has its limitations because of the inability to compare it with past data. However, one can say that Buddhism was a minority religion in India from its inception.

3 L. Kenadi, Revival of Buddhism in Modern India (New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1995).

4 Michael Molloy, Experiencing the World’s Religions (New York: McGraw Hill, 2008), 143-169.

5 Edward Conze, A Short History of Buddhism (Boston: George Allen & Unwin, 1980), 73. Although this school became exclusively associated with Tibetan Buddhism, the presence of Tibetan exiles in India has revived Vajrayana Buddhism in India.

6 Paul J. Griffiths, “Indian Buddhist Meditation,” in Buddhist Spirituality, ed. Takeuchi Yoshinori (New York: Crossroad, 1993), 42.

7 Ibid., 63.

8 Jyothi Thottam, “India’s New Buddhists,” Time, July 15, 2008, http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1822787,00.html.

9 Molloy, Experiencing the World’s Religions, 150.

10 Daigan and Alicia Matsunaga, “The Concept of Upaya in Mahayana Buddhist Philosophy,” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 1, no. 1 (March 1974): 51.


Joshua Muthalali

Joshua Muthalali is a third-year MDiv student at Fuller Theological Seminary. He was born in Chennai, India, and grew up in the Indian Pentecostal movement. He is currently a chaplain intern at a hospital that has a fairly significant Buddhist patient population.